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Peste des petits ruminants

GENERAL INFORMATION :

  • Virus; Negative Stranded ssRNA Viruses; Order Mononegavirales ; Family Paramyxoviridae; Subfamily Paramyxovirinae; Genus Morbillivirus
  • Notifiable disease : Yes
  • Official Control program in Belgium : No
  • Curative treatment : None
  • Preventive treatment : Vaccination (homologous vaccine)

IN A FEW LINES :

Peste des petits ruminants  Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is classified as a notifiable disease by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The causal agent, the Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), is a member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, similar to the closely related rinderpest virus. Four genetic lineages (lineages 1-4) have been identified.

 

The Peste des petits ruminants is a contagious viral infectious disease targeting the small ruminants (ovine and caprine). The clinical picture of the disease is characterized by serous ocular and nasal discharges, necrotic lesions of the buccal mucosal membrane, bronchopneumonia and diarrhea. The clinical signs associated with the diseases are variable from peracute, acute, subacute to chronic forms, highly influenced by the species and the breed of the infected animal, as well as it's immunity status to PPRV.

 

The epidemiological characteristics of the disease include a high rate of illness and mortality in domestic ovines and caprines (sheep and goat) and occasionally in small ruminants living in the wild. The morbidity rate reaches 90% for susceptible population, with a mortality rate between 50 and 80%.

 

The disease has been circulating in parts of sub-Saharan Africa for several decades and in the Middle East spreading to Turkey and Southern Asia since 1993. Outbreaks have been notified for the first time in Morocco in 2008, in Algeria and Tunisia in 2012, constituting the serious threat for emergence in North Africa and EU countries.

 

Risk factors
- Direct contact between animals
- No carrier state
- Seasonal variations: more frequent outbreaks during the rainy season or the dry cold season

 

Clinical signs

- Living animal : PPR is characterized by severe pyrexia, important congestion of the mucosa associated with serous ocular and nasal discharges, erosive lesions on different mucous membranes, particularly in the mouth, bronchopneumonia and diarrhea.

- Postmortem : characteristic zebra markings may occur in the large intestine, but are not a consistent finding. Lesions also occur in the lungs showing congestion or bronchopneumonia when associated with bacterial infection.

 

ROLE OF CODA-CERVA :

CODA-CERVA is the Belgian National Reference Laboratory for peste des petits ruminants.

In 2009, CODA-CERVA was participant to interlaboratory test organized by the CIRAD, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) reference laboratory.

  • DIAGNOSIS

- Direct : virological molecular diagnostic by Real-time RT-PCR (from swabs of the conjunctival discharges and from the nasal, buccal and rectal mucosae, mesenteric and bronchial lymph nodes, spleen and blood samples)
- Indirect : serological diagnosis (Antibody ELISA)

 

SCIENTIST RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS TOPIC :

Marylène Tignon

 

SCIENTIFIC TEAM :

Marylène Tignon

Brigitte Cay


CODA-CERVA RESEARCH PROJECT ON THIS TOPIC (recent or under way) :

Diagnosis improvement and molecular diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THIS ARTICLE :

- Chapter 2.7.11. Peste des petits ruminants, in Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Edited in 2012 by the Office International des Epizooties (World Organisation for Animal Health).

- Rinderpest et peste des petits ruminants, by William Taylor. 2005, Edited by Thomas Barrett, Paul-Pierre Pastoret
- Reconnaître la peste des petits ruminants, Manuel de terrain, FAO, 2000

 

LINKS TO OTHER WEBSITES :

http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.07.11_PPR.pdf
http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/PESTE_DES_PETITS_RUMINANTS_FINAL.pdf

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/peste_des_petits_ruminants.pdf

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X1703F/X1703F00.htm